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A neurologist is a medical doctor who specializes in treating diseases of the nervous system. The nervous system is made of two parts the central and peripheral nervous system. It includes the brain and spinal cord. Illnesses, disorders, and injuries that involve the nervous system often require a neurologist's management and treatment. Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the central and peripheral nervous systems and their subdivisions, the autonomic and somatic nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle. Neurological practice relies heavily on the field of neuroscience, which is the scientific study of the nervous system. A neurologist is a physician specializing in neurology and trained to investigate, or diagnose and treat neurological disorders. Neurologists may also be involved in clinical research, clinical trials, and basic or translational research. While neurology is a nonsurgical specialty, its corresponding surgical specialty is neurosurgery.
Neurosurgery is a surgical procedure that uses invasive techniques to diagnose, investigate and or treat a neurological disorder, disease or injury. For example, to remove a brain tumour or insert a deep brain stimulation device. Neurosurgery is the surgical specialization that treats diseases and disorders of the brain and spinal cord. Back pain can sometimes produce neurological symptoms such as numbness, muscle weakness, and loss of bowel and bladder control due to dysfunction at the nerve root. These symptoms are indicators that neurosurgery is required to treat the underlying cause of back pain as opposed to conservative treatments. Procedures to treat back pain under the realm of neurosurgery include discectomy, laminectomy, and spinal fusion surgery. In neurosurgery there is a higher risk of further nerve damage and infection which may result in paralysis.
Neurodegenerative disease is an umbrella term for a range of conditions which primarily affect the neurons in the human brain. Neurons are the building blocks of the nervous system which includes the brain and spinal cord. Neurons normally don’t reproduce or replace themselves, so when they become damaged or die they cannot be replaced by the body. Examples of neurodegenerative diseases include Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s disease. Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and debilitating conditions that result in progressive degeneration and / or death of nerve cells. This causes problems with movement called ataxias, or mental functioning called dementias. Dementias are responsible for the greatest burden of neurodegenerative diseases, with Alzheimer's representing approximately 60-70% of dementia cases. The neurodegenerative disorders are Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias; Parkinson's disease (PD) and PD-related disorders, Prion disease, Motor neurone diseases (MND), Huntington’s disease (HD), Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), and Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).
Alzheimer's disease and dementia are often used interchangeably as many people believe that one means the other. In fact, the distinction between the two diseases often causes confusion on the behalf of patients, families and caregivers. Discover how the two diagnoses, while related, are remarkably different. Alzheimer's and dementia are still a mystery in many ways. This is why the two similar diseases are often mixed up in every day conversation and understanding. Dementia is a brain disorder that affects communication and performance of daily activities and Alzheimer’s disease is a form of dementia that specifically affects parts of the brain that control thought, memory and language.
Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and the most common movement disorder. Characteristics of Parkinson's disease are progressive loss of muscle control, which leads to trembling of the limbs and head while at rest, stiffness, slowness, and impaired balance. As symptoms worsen, it may become difficult to walk, talk, and complete simple tasks. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder, which leads to progressive deterioration of motor function due to loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. The cause of Parkinson's disease is unknown but researchers speculate that both genetic and environmental factors are involved. Some genes have been linked to the disease. Primary symptoms include are tremor, stiffness, slowness, impaired balance, and later on a shuffling gait. Some secondary symptoms include anxiety, depression, and dementia.
Behavioral neurology is a subspecialty of neurology that studies the impact of neurological damage and disease upon behavior, memory, and cognition, and the treatment thereof. Two fields associated with behavioral neurology are neuropsychiatry and neuropsychology. Behavioral neurology is that specialty of one, which deals with the study of neurological basis of behavior, memory, and cognition and their impact of damage and disease and treatment. While descriptions of behavioral syndromes go back to the ancient Greeks and Egyptians, it was during the 19th century that behavioral neurology began to arise, first with the primitive localization theories of Franz Gall followed in the mid 19th century by the first localizations in aphasias by Paul Broca and then Carl Wernicke. Localizationist neurology and clinical descriptions reached a peak in the late 19th and early 20th century with work extending into the clinical descriptions of dementias by Alois Alzheimer and Arnold Pick. The work of Karl Lashley in rats for a time in the early to mid 20th century put a damper on localization theory and lesion models of behavioral function.
Your nerve cells, also called neurons, send the messages that control these muscles. When the neurons become unhealthy or die, communication between your nervous system and muscles breaks down. As a result, your muscles weaken and waste away. The weakness can lead to twitching, cramps, aches and pains, and joint and movement problems. Sometimes it also affects heart function and your ability to breathe. Examples of neuromuscular disorders include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and spinal muscular atrophy. Many neuromuscular diseases are genetic, which means they run in families or there is a mutation in your genes. Sometimes, an immune system disorder can cause them. Most of them have no cure. The goal of treatment is to improve symptoms, increase mobility and lengthen life.
Neuro Ophthalmology focuses on diseases of the nervous system that affect vision, control of eye movements, or pupillary reflexes. Neuro-ophthalmologists often see patients with complex multi-system disease and zebras are not uncommon. Neuro-ophthalmology is mostly non-procedural; however, neuro-ophthalmologists may be trained to perform eye muscle surgery to treat adult strabismus, optic nerve fenestration for idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and botulinum injections for blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm. Two neuro-ophthalmology fellows of Andrew G. Lee published reasons why they chose to pursue the discipline. The neuro-ophthalmologist is often the sub-specialty that others turn to when the etiology of visual decline is in question. They are often uniquely suited to provide a global and comprehensive perspective to any complex medical, neurologic, ophthalmologic, or neurosurgical case.
Brain Disorders and Treatment focus on causes, symptoms and diagnosis of various brain disorders, infections, trauma, stroke, seizures, and tumors of brain etc. Brain disorders and treatment focus on various aspects of brain disorders viz, ALS, Alzheimer's disease, Bell's Palsy, Birth Defects of the Brain and Spinal Cord, Brain Aneurysm, Brain Injury, Brain Tumor, Cerebral Palsy, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Concussion, Dementia, Disk Disease of Neck and Lower Back, Dizziness, Epilepsy, Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Headache Cluster, Headache Tension, Migraine Headaches, Multiple Sclerosis, Muscular Dystrophy, Neuralgia, Neuromuscular and Related Diseases, Neuropathy, Parkinson's Disease, Psychiatric Conditions Severe Depression, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Scoliosis, Seizures, Spinal Cord Injury, Spinal Deformity, Spinal Disorder Subacute Combined Degeneration, Spine Tumor, Stroke, Vertigo, etc.
Neuro-oncology involves the comprehensive research and treatment of benign and malignant brain tumors, including glioblastoma. It provides a compassionate team approach to patients with primary brain tumors or neurologic complications of cancer. With the world's latest neuroimaging technology, systems and software, our specialists are guided by distinct three-dimensional scans of the brain. Advanced technology means faster, accurate diagnoses and precision treatment of brain tumors and their complications. A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells forms within the brain. There are two main types of tumors malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors. Cancerous tumors can be divided into primary tumors that start within the brain, and secondary tumors that have spread from somewhere else, known as brain metastasis tumors. All types of brain tumors may produce symptoms that vary depending on the part of the brain involved. These symptoms may include headaches, seizures, problem with vision, vomiting, and mental changes. The headache is classically worse in the morning and goes away with vomiting.
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body. It involves a variety of imaging techniques such as X-ray radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine including positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used to diagnose and or treat diseases. Interventional radiology is the performance of usually minimally invasive medical procedures with the guidance of imaging technologies. Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function / pharmacology of the nervous system. It is a relatively new discipline within medicine, neuroscience, and psychology. Neuroimaging falls into two broad categories such as structural imaging, which deals with the structure of the nervous system and the diagnosis of gross large scale intracranial disease such as tumor and injury. And functional imaging which is used to diagnose metabolic diseases and lesions on a finer scale such as Alzheimer's disease and also for neurological and cognitive psychology research and building brain-computer interfaces.
The case history presents real cases from clinical practice and allows reader to engage with the material as she would in real practice. It includes expert commentary on diagnosis and management of each case to help the reader understand the expert's diagnostic approach and management for each case. Writing a case or collection reinforces many aspects of the medical training process, and house body of workers is advocated to analyze, write, and put up reports. The scientific network advantages in lots of approaches from case reviews, from improving person patient care to guiding destiny research instructions. The goal of addiction treatment is long-term abstinence and to accomplish this one must minimize relapses. There are three well-characterized causes of relapse such as stress-induced such as family conflict, cue-induced environmental triggers like seeing drug paraphernalia and drug-induced even small exposures renewing addiction.
When a stem cell divides each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell. Stem cells differ from other kinds of cells in the body. All stem cells regardless of their source have three general properties which include unspecialized stem cells; one of the fundamental properties of a stem cell is that it does not have any tissue-specific structures that allow it to perform specialized functions; they can give rise to specialized cell types. These unspecialized stem cells can give rise to specialized cells, including heart muscle cells, blood cells, or nerve cells. A starting population of stem cells that proliferates for many months in the laboratory can yield millions of cells.
Neuropsychiatry has become a growing subspecialty of psychiatry and it is also closely related to the fields of neuropsychology and behavioral neurology. Given the considerable overlap between these subspecialties, there has been a resurgence of interest and debate relating to neuropsychiatry in academia over the last decade. Most of this work argues for a rapprochement of neurology and psychiatry, forming a specialty above and beyond a subspecialty of psychiatry. For example, Professor Joseph B. Martin, former Dean of Harvard Medical School and a neurologist by training has summarized the argument for reunion saying that the separation of the two categories is arbitrary, often influenced by beliefs rather than proven scientific observations. And the fact that the brain and mind are one makes the separation artificial anyway.
Neurogenetics studies the role of genetics in the development and function of the nervous system. It considers neural characteristics as phenotypes that is manifestations, measurable or not, of the genetic make-up of an individual, and is mainly based on the observation that the nervous systems of individuals, even of those belonging to the same species, may not be identical. As the name implies, it draws aspects from both the studies of neuroscience and genetics, focusing in particular how the genetic code an organism carries affects its expressed traits. Mutations in this genetic sequence can have a wide range of effects on the quality of life of the individual. Neurological diseases, behavior and personality are all studied in the context of neurogenetics. The field of neurogenetics emerged in the mid to late 1900s with advances closely following advancements made in available technology.
Central nervous system diseases also known as central nervous system disorders, are a group of neurological disorders that affect the structure or function of the brain or spinal cord, which collectively form the central nervous system (CNS). Every disease has different signs and symptoms. Some of them are persistent headache; pain in the face, back, arms, or legs; an inability to concentrate; loss of feeling; memory loss; loss of muscle strength; tremors; seizures; increased reflexes, spasticity, tics; paralysis; and slurred speech. One should seek medical attention if affected by these. Any type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) or injury done to the spinal cord can result in a wide spectrum of disabilities in a person. Depending on the section of the brain or spinal cord that suffers the trauma, the outcome may be anticipated.
Neuroimmunology, the study of the interaction between our central nervous system the brain and spinal cord and our immune system, melds these two disciplines. It deals with how your immune cells affect the brain and how your brain influences immune function are not new, neuroimmunology as a field of research is relatively young. The term has been in use only since the 1960s. It was just 30 years ago that a neuroimmunology branch was established. Today the study of nervous system–immune system interactions is thriving, as more and more scientists from diverse areas of medical research are drawn into the field. Scientists have long understood that the brain, with its complex pathways of nerve connections developed over a lifetime of experiences, holds special status regarding how the immune system defends it. This immune privilege may be the brain's way of protecting its delicate tissue from potential damage by immune cells in their rush to eliminate a threat.
Clinical Psychology is one of the largest specialty areas in psychology, which applies scientific methods to treat complex human problems such as mental, emotional and behavioral problems and promote change. Psychosis may occur as a result of a psychiatric illness such as schizophrenia or caused by a health condition, medication or drug use. Symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, talking disjointedly and agitation. Often times the person with the condition isn't aware of his or her behavior. Cognitive behavioral therapies, Family therapy, Antipsychotic medication, Hospitalization are the possible treatments for individuals suffering from psychosis.
This session discuss more about current research, advances made and to be made in the field of Clinical psychology.